Disruptor – Page 2 – Creative Disruption
 

Author: Disruptor

CHEAP ALTERNATIVES TO A NIGHT OUT

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Much as we love to spend the weekends hitting the town as hard we hit the books during the week, sometimes the cost of living as a postgrad student can keep the night of your dreams precisely there: in your dreams. However, with a little inventiveness, you can still have a fantastic night on your limited means and it doesn’t necessarily involve staying indoors or sober either!

1. The work/play trade off
Volunteering can be a great way to enjoy a night out at very little cost. We don’t necessarily mean hanging out at the local soup kitchen – kind though that would be! We’re talking about offering to help at events in exchange for free entry. For example, if you’re in London, you could volunteer to usher at the Globe theatre and be given free entry to the performance in exchange for your efforts. Contact venues and organisers of live, ticketed events in your area to see if there’s some way to switch your services for a free ticket.

2. The house party
Buying supermarket-priced drinks and snacks is a lot cheaper than visiting a pub or restaurant so – even though you’ll have to clear up in the morning, which might not be very appealing – hosting a party at your place is a much more affordable way of dancing the night away. Not only is it cheap, but the element of control also ensures that there’s no dodgy music playing…

3. The uni societies
As a postgrad, you may not be targeted by the societies in Freshers’ Week with the same zealous intensity facing undergrad recruits, but postgrad students are just as welcome to join most clubs and societies. In fact, what with the absence of SLC funding for postgraduate study, some might argue that postgrads need these cheap societies even more than their undergrad counterparts!

Societies include sports, hobbies and skill swaps. Although they usually have an annual sign-up fee, many clubs will provide free events throughout the year, including quizzes, film screenings, discussion groups, games, sports matches and socials, some of which will include free refreshments. Best of all, as you’re all students together, you’re likely to be in similar financial situations and therefore the odds of one person suggesting an outrageously expensive event are very small.

4. The home cinema
If you like the idea of film screenings but your university doesn’t have a film club and you’re not inclined to start one, you can make the most of your student discount by catching movies at a discounted rate during the day. However, if you’d like to have a little more variety in your choice of films, you could set up a home cinema. Between the library (public or university), LoveFilm, Netflix and your own personal stash of films, you should have a large enough catalogue to see you through the year or few that it takes to complete your course. If you’re living in a house share , you could even contribute a little each in order to buy a second-hand projector and screen for the ultimate in-home film entertainment, and if pre-popped and pre-bagged popcorn stretches your funds a little too much, you can always buy a bag of corn kernels and make your own in a saucepan.

5. The frugal night out
If none of the above appeals and you still want to head into town, check out whether there are any free events happening in your city (pub gigs, carnivals, outdoor performances) and head on down there. Even if the venue isn’t specifically targeted at students and doesn’t feature discounts, remember that lime and soda is a particularly cheap drink to buy at a pub!

MERCEDES-BENZ SHOWS THE INTERIOR OF THE NEW E-CLASS

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Passengers in the E-Class can enjoy a new control experience with high-resolution visualisations and animations, the developers have focused on the use of newly implemented presentation and display techniques to make it more intuitive – for the driver to register and experience information.

For example, animated displays are used to show the mode of action of assistance systems, or of Dynamic Select. The likewise animated ECO display in the instrument cluster helps the driver to adopt an economical driving style in an easily understandable manner.

mercedes benz-e-class 1

Depending on the transmission, the new E-Class comes with two differently designed centre consoles. Models with automatic transmission have a straight-through centre console, with dynamically rising, sportily high connection to the cockpit, by a control panel in a “Black Panel” glass look. Other controls, such as in the doors, also feature the “Black Panel” look. Models with manual transmission are provided with a centre console in the form of two separate trim parts.

The improvements to the Mercedes-Benz is good news for UK corporate chauffeur services such as Cars Exec. It’s no secret that the business world loves the Mercedes-Benz, and chauffeur services typically include these cars in their lineup of vehicles used to transport corporate clients.

The interior lighting makes exclusive use of durable, energy-saving LED technology. The same applies to the optionally available enhanced ambience lighting. With 64 colours, it offers a host of possibilities for personalisation. It adds touches of light, for example, to the trim parts, central display, front stowage facility on the centre console, handle recesses, door pockets, front and rear footwells, overhead console, mirror triangle and tweeters.

mercedes benz-e-class 2

The E-Class is optionally available with a MULTIBEAM LED headlamp system with ILS (Intelligent Light System) and Adaptive Highbeam Assist Plus. The MULTIBEAM LED headlamps are immediately identifiable. They provide new, visual highlights with passively illuminated, blue light surfaces. These outline the hallmark E-Class “torch effect” of the daytime running lamps and side lights and, even when low beam or high beam is switched on, create a blue setting for a fascinating look. This lends an unmistakable character to the light design of E-Class models with MULTIBEAM LED headlamps.

This characteristic look also points to a new dimension in headlamp technology, because MULTIBEAM LED headlamps use 84 individually controlled high-power LEDs in each headlamp. This makes them bright and precise, as they automatically illuminate the road surface with a previously unsurpassed, precision-controlled distribution of light – without dazzling other road users.

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PRESCHOOLERS AND THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE AND MATH

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Unfortunately, young children don’t get enough math and science experiences. Even well-regarded programs for young children tend to have a strong focus on language and social development but a weaker focus on math, and little or no focus on developing children’s potential for scientific thinking. What’s more, the small amount of math and science that young children are taught is often not of high quality.

How can we support high-quality math and science learning in a way that’s appropriate to children’s development? The answer lies in seeing that learning progresses along research-based, learning trajectories.

A learning trajectory has three components: a goal, a developmental progression, and instructional activities. To attain a certain competence in a given math or science topic (the goal), students progress through several levels of thinking (the developmental progression), aided by tasks and experiences (instructional activities) designed to build the mental actions-on- objects that enable thinking at each level.

For example, we might set a goal for young children to become competent at counting. A developmental progression means that a child might start by learning simple verbal counting, then learn one-to-one correspondence between counting words and objects. After that, the child learns to connect the final number of the counting process to the cardinal quantity of a set (that is, how many elements the set contains). Finally, the child acquires counting strategies for solving arithmetic problems (up to multi-digit problems, for example, 36 + 12: “I counted 36 … 46 … then 47, 48!”).

kids reading

It’s important to mention that while it is a good idea to introduce young children to technical topics, a strong emphasize on topics such as the promotion of self-worth, diversity and self-confidence should remain. A variety of children’s teaching resources including books, children’s stories, work programmes can be found online at sites such as 1 You World.

Many early childhood teachers aren’t eager or prepared to teach STEM subjects, even though children may be eager to learn them. Historically, teachers of young children haven’t been prepared to teach subject- specific knowledge to young children. In-service professional development also tends not to emphasize math and science, despite the existence of learning standards and increased curricular attention to these subjects.

If teachers are to help young children learn STEM subjects, their professional development must help them explore content and teaching methods in depth. In general, research suggests that effective professional development in early STEM should be continuous, intentional, reflective, goal- oriented, and focused on content knowledge and children’s thinking. It should be grounded in particular curriculum materials, and situated in the classroom.

But all training needn’t occur in the classroom. Teachers also need off-site, intensive training that focuses on the three components of a learning trajectory—goals (the STEM content), developmental progressions, and instructional activities. Then they need time to try out the new strategies in their classrooms, supported by coaches who give them feedback.

The success of our Building Blocks curriculum and other projects can largely be attributed to such professional development that’s organized around learning trajectories. These projects included far more extensive and intensive professional development, ranging from five to 14 full days, compared with the usual one-shot workshop.

Current research in learning trajectories points the way toward math learning that is more effective and efficient—but also creative and enjoyable—through culturally relevant and developmentally appropriate curricula and assessment. However, we still have much to learn about teaching certain topics in math, science, engineering, and technology. We also need to understand better how to improve curriculum and teacher training so that children can realize their full potential in these critical subjects.

tax benefits

TAX BENEFITS OF A LIMITED COMPANY

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Deciding to take your company from sole trader to Limited is a daunting decision but one that can extremely benefit your company in the long run through the thing we all hate the most…taxes. First of all, get your new business company registered, otherwise not only will you be subject to fines if you aren’t registered, but you won’t be able to reap the benefits of tax.

Being self employed, the line between business money and personal money is hard if not impossible to distinguish. The instant benefit of being a Limited Company, a separate entity from it’s owners, is that the liability is transferred from the shareholders onto the company itself, making it an attractive and safe investment for shareholders. This means that with the company being a corporate body it is liable for payments and debt.

Not the owners, not the shareholders. Corporation tax is only payable when the company makes a profit, and the amount of tax saving depends on the net profit before the tax. This technique can be used to the advantage of many small companies, such as the Greek life app developer OurHouse, which makes a fraternity management mobile app for use by colleges. As far as tax goes, with a Limited company, comes lower corporation tax benefits. Over recent years, corporation tax for Limited companies has increased from 20% to 22% whilst sole traders have suffered from a reduction of corporation tax by 2% taking it down to 20%.

The advantage in tax saving stems from the flexibilities of dividends and being able to determine salaries within a Limited company. A sole trader’s basic accounts are subjected to fixed tax rates. Advantages increase for Limited companies in the tax realm when net taxable profit is above the self-employment upper earnings limit. Money can then be left in the business thus becoming only accountable for the 22% corporation tax rate, completely avoiding paying the 40% tax rate as a sole trader.

By forming your company as a Limited Company, it becomes a clear indication to your buyers, shareholders etc that your business is serious. A private limited company advantages over self employment also extends to long term finance. Companies tend to retain more funds within the business to meet future financial commitments which aids year on year growth, a more sustainable business and medium term profits growth over a sole trader.

investments

HIGHER INTEREST RATES SPUR GREATER INVESTMENT

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That appears to be the central claim of Kevin Warsh and Stanley Druckenmiller in a Wall Street Journal column criticizing the Fed’s asset buying program. The central claim appears to be that because asset prices have been rising, companies have been discouraged from undertaking productive investment.

While Warsh and Druckenmiller are certainly right that the asset buying program has had limited benefits for the real economy, it doesn’t follow that the economy would be stronger without it.

First, they misrepresent the wealth situation when they tell readers:

“The aggregate wealth of U.S. households, including stocks and real-estate holdings, just hit a new high of $81.8 trillion. That’s more than $26 trillion in wealth added since 2009.”

The sharp rise in wealth since 2009 was due to a sharp plunge in the financial crisis. The notion of a “record” is misleading since the economy is growing we expect wealth to continually hit records. The ratio of wealth to GDP was 4.78 in the first quarter of 2014. By comparison, it was 4.86 for 2006. The Fed’s policies have simply brought the ratio of wealth to GDP back to pre-recession levels.

More importantly, Warsh and Druckenmiller seem to turn causality on its head when they say:

“Meanwhile, corporate chieftains rationally choose financial engineering—debt-financed share buybacks, for example—over capital investment in property, plants and equipment.”

Lower Interest rates encourage additional investment spending, which gives the economy a boost in times of slow economic growth. The Federal Reserve Board is in charge of setting interest rates for the United States through the use of monetary policy. According to US News, the Fed adjusts interest rates to affect demand for goods and services. Interest rate fluctuations can have a large effect on the stock market, inflation and the economy as a whole. Lowering interest rates is the Fed’s most powerful tool to increase investment spending in the U.S. and to attempt to steer the country clear of recessions.

Ultimately, the Fed uses monetary policy to keep the economy stable. In times of economic downturn, the Fed lowers interest rates to encourage additional investment spending. When the economy is growing and in good condition, the Fed takes measures to increase interest rates slightly to keep inflation at bay. The Fed controls the federal funds rate, which influences long-term interest rates. The federal funds rate is the interest banking institutions charge one another for overnight loans of reserves or balances that are needed to meet minimum reserve requirements set by the Fed. By setting the federal funds rate, the Fed indirectly adjusts long-term interest rates, which increases investment spending and eventually affects employment, output and inflation.

Changes in interest rates affect the public’s demand for goods and services and, thus, aggregate investment spending. A decrease in interest rates lowers the cost of borrowing, which encourages businesses to increase investment spending. Lower interest rates also give banks more incentive to lend to businesses and households, allowing them to spend more.

Low interest rates encourage corporations to invest in stock rather than bonds. If interest rates were higher, then presumably they would do the opposite. Low interest rates (and high stock prices) make it easier to borrow to finance capital investment in property, plants and equipment. It is hard to imagine why they think firms would be investing more, if it cost them more money to make these investments.

maxine fothergill

UK REAL ESTATE IN A POST BREXIT WORLD

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The UK vote to leave the European Union whipsawed capital markets throughout the world, but the carnage got so bad in the market for open-ended UK real-estate funds that some managers decided to freeze redemptions.

Now, with some of those redemption halts going into their third month, a debate has surfaced in the industry between the firms that opted to redeem and those that didn’t. The question: Which ones prepared better for the market shock in the months leading up to the Brexit vote and made the smarter calls in terms of opening or shutting their redemption gates?

Consider Edinburgh-based Standard Life Investments, which manages a $2.5 billion open-ended fund that invests in UK property. Standard Life chose to freeze redemptions partly to avoid having to go into the market and sell property at fire-sale prices, according to its executives.

A different approach was taken by Aberdeen Asset Management, which manages an open-ended fund that invests in UK property with assets of about £2.7 billion. Aberdeen temporarily froze redemptions in the aftermath of the June 23 vote, but lifted the freeze by mid-July after setting up new procedures for pricing redeemed units.

Aberdeen also has been able to resume redemptions by selling assets, including a commercial building on Oxford Street. Norwegian sovereign wealth fund manager Norges Bank Investment Management purchased it in mid-July for £124 million.

Maxine Fothergill of Amax Estates notes that Aberdeen fund was marketed to people, many of them small mom-and-pop investors, as an investment that they could buy and sell easily, said Russell Chaplin, chief investment officer of Aberdeen’s real estate team. “They have a reasonable expectation of liquidity in something that’s called a liquid fund,” he said, defending the firm’s decision to continue redemptions.

Experts say there are about 10 open-ended funds that invest in UK property with about £20 billion of assets. About half have halted redemptions. The other half haven’t.

These redemption decisions have got enormous attention following the Brexit vote because many expect UK real estate to be hurt by the country’s decision to exit from the EU. Demand for London office space and residences, for example, will likely weaken if businesses shift operations to continental Europe.

Ms. Fothergill states that the different redemption strategies have clearly become a matter of pride and controversy for the firms. A spokesman for one of the managers, London-based Legal & General Group, said in an email that the firm “is one of the few firms not to close any of their property funds since the Brexit vote and they haven’t been making any fire-sale type disposals”.

maxine fothergill amax estates

Many of those involved in the debate agree that it will take time to determine who was right. Halting redemptions likely will look smart if Brexit’s feared impact on UK real estate doesn’t materialise and prices rebound. But if values continue to fall, selling assets now will look like the right choice.

In any case, the industry’s response to Brexit is expected to be closely studied in the future by regulators and industry participants. A similar review, which took place after the 2008 global financial downturn in which many firms also froze redemptions, led to new regulations and disclosure practices, market participants say.

Open-ended funds have been popular with investors because they offered real estate returns without the volatility facing real estate companies with listed shares. They based their pricing of units on monthly appraisals of the property they owned.

Over the past 10 years, bnnbloomberg.ca says that these funds have outperformed listed real estate stocks, according to John Lutzius, a managing director of Green Street Advisors. They have produced better returns partly because they charged investors relatively low fees and they have kept borrowing low, he said.

But the funds also have suffered from a structural flaw, Lutzius said. “They are making a promise of daily liquidity for assets that are inherently not liquid,” he said.

Some of the funds have dealt with this issue by increasing the amount of the fund that is in cash by selling assets when more redemptions are expected. For example, Aberdeen had increased its cash position to more than 20% of its value in the months leading up to the Brexit vote because the firm felt that the market had hit its peak.

Normally, cash makes up about 15% of the fund. “You never know when these things are going to come,” FPRA.org declares. “But you know at some point, if things are slow, people are going to want to have their cash.”

But increasing cash isn’t enough of a precaution when investors rush for the door following a market shock like Brexit. Aberdeen also is dealing with this through “antidilution” measures that apply an extra cost to investors who want to redeem quickly, Chaplin said.

“It’s no different to selling your house,” he said. “If you wanted to sell it tomorrow, you probably wouldn’t get what you were told it’s value was” by a real estate agent.

GET READY TO RIDE THE WAVE: THE WAVE EBIKE

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The bike has for many years a popular method to move around, get exercise, and even travel to all the places a busy person might want to go. It seems that the biggest restriction relating to the bike is that it is driven by human muscle. However, what if a person could possess all of the benefits of a bike, and additionally obtain the expanded range of power-assist? Now, with a Wave eBike, you can.

Just why might one choose to go with electric? The fact is an eBike gives the best of both worlds. You receive the activity and greater level of fitness that go along with riding a bike, yet you furthermore experience the assistance of the electric motor to prevent you from getting overly tired. You will not fret regarding being worn out once you reach your destination when you’re using your Wave eBike for transport and not just for fun.

This is due to the fact you choose to ride without pedaling, or you would like the assistance to expand your biking range for lengthier journeys, the electrical motor is there to help you. Basically, an electric bicycle is just a better means to get about your town, devote some time in clean air and pleasant weather, and have fun while doing so.

Perhaps the best thing could be that it is incredibly environmentally friendly. It turns out an e-Bike is a sustainable transport alternative that costs merely pennies compared to the cost of operation for any gas-powered vehicle. It can quite possibly be cheaper than public transportation. There are several very good reasons to switch to electric, and if you experience an e-Bike, you can expect to concur that it’s stimulating and enjoyable while additionally delivering a great green transportation choice.

Probably the most obvious appeal of the electric bicycle could be the means to regulate how much energy you prefer to put into cycling. The motor can always be used to pick up the slack if you happen to need to travel up a steep incline, or even whenever you want to increase your range.

You could choose to pedal at nominal levels of exertion applying pedal assist, or you could move around with no effort whatsoever because the motor performs all the work. The level of exercise you get, along with the level of your training, will be totally up to you. You can actually decide to pedal all out without the motor whatsoever, having as strenuous a workout as possible, and then allow the motor get you back when you have ultimately tired yourself out. The boundaries of the motor option are completely up to you. Interested in an eBike, but not sure what brand bike to buy? Read eBike reviews over at the eBike Owners website.

The eBike’s motor aspect is especially handy when you’re dealing with a really steep hill, or simply with a strong wind which you are struggling against. Wind or hills, with a Wave eBike, you are able to manage both of those conditions better, making it a lot more comfortable to bike up extreme hillsides and to slice through formidable headwinds. Quite a few folks have injuries or debilitating illnesses that make it more demanding to pedal very long ranges.

They are able to get on a bike, however due to knee, leg or ankle difficulties perhaps they can’t pedal for distances they may normally like to travel, or they don’t possess the stamina needed to make it feasible to pedal a bicycle for extended ranges. The ebike covers this situation, allowing an individual who would like to partake in cycling to journey farther than they could under his or her own energy.

The e-Bike’s electric motor provides a multitude of choices pertaining to how you handle your transportation desires. Not to mention whenever you ride your e-Bike you do not need to worry about costly insurance premiums or getting stuck in traffic.

An eBike is light and maneuverable allowing you to take small bike trails and journey into busy spots while scarcely slowing down. Once you arrive at your desired destination, just bring your eBike indoors or lock it to an appropriate bicycle rack. So much for difficulty finding a parking space.

tech air travel

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND TRAVEL INDUSTRY AUTOMATION

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They were dead set on changing the way you book your travel. In the building next to me on the Microsoft campus in 1996, there was a team that was absolutely convinced they would radically alter the travel industry by allowing customers to directly access a huge database of flights via the web. It turns out they were right, and within a few years, Rich Barton, who led the team, convinced Steve Ballmer to spin the project called “Expedia” out of Microsoft.

Expedia and its competitors did go on to change the world of travel. Their user-friendly interfaces to databases, once reserved for professionals, gave us a self-serve option for booking flights, hotels, and car rentals. In the process, they seriously shook up the travel industry, knocking out a large portion of the travel agent profession.

In the United States, there are currently around 13,000 travel retail locations, down from a peak of 34,000 in the mid-1990s when Internet travel websites were just getting started. The real toll, though, is most visible when you look at Department of Labor statistics on actual employment in the travel agent sector. There are now less than half the number of travel agent jobs than there were just two decades ago.

Automation is never a simple story. What creates traumatic economic displacement for some, often brings convenience and lower prices for others – and sure enough, the cost of air travel has dropped significantly over this same period. Of the top twenty markets, Las Vegas and Phoenix are the only two cities were prices have actually increased. For the remaining eighteen, prices have all fallen. On average, airfares in these top twenty markets last year were 30% less than they were twenty years earlier.

Airline deregulation undoubtedly played a critical role in these airfare decreases, but there also seems little doubt that the easy comparison shopping that services like Expedia has enabled is also an important factor.

Technology giveth and technology taketh away. Those travel agencies that survived had to move up market, away from purely transactional ticket-booking to more consultative services, where domain expertise and the ability to provide useful advice really mattered. I actually used a firm like this earlier this year on a family trip to China and it was quite valuable.

But now, even these firms may soon be at risk, thanks to new computing technologies that will gradually take over some of the domain expertise in travel.

The first wave of automation to hit the travel agency market was transactional – the result of giving end users direct access to a reservations database. This next wave of automation builds on the first wave, but is knowledge-based and relies on a new layer of artificial intelligence.

This next wave of automation will replace travel agents with “personal travel concierges,” able to sift through mountains of information to give you tailored advice on how to plan your trip. That, at least, is the plan of the startup called WayBlazer.

The most interesting thing about WayBlazer is that it has the Jeopardy-winning IBM Watson under its hood. WayBlazer’s not yet on the market: its first prototype application will be for the Austin Convention & Visitors Bureau, but you can get a taste for what the user interface might look like on its Formula 1 racing app.

One thing worth noting about IBM is that it is rolling out Watson services as a business-to-business offering, targeting vertical industries through partnerships in retail, several healthcare applications, talent management, and now travel. The only way that you will get to experience IBM Watson artificial intelligence is through an IBM partner. Even WayBlazer, a Watson partner itself, will only be available through partners, rather than its own consumer-facing website. This is what you might call a ‘vertical’ strategy for the artificial intelligence market.

Contrast that with what companies like Google, Facebook, Twitter, Yahoo and LinkedIn are likely up to, which is more of a ‘horizontal’ strategy for artificial intelligence. They won’t deep-dive into specific vertical markets, but instead choose broader, more utility-like approaches for processing the broad range of topics their end users are likely to need. Your interaction with the artificial intelligence may feel a bit different across these services, but this horizontal approach will be part of the way you make sense of the world. It will become an increasingly central part of your relationships with these companies and the value you derive from their services.

So, when it comes to using artificial intelligence to help you plan your vacation in 2018, will you use a general purpose artificial intelligence with Google or Facebook, or will you work through some entity like an airline or local tourism bureau, using an industry-specific artificial intelligence like WayBlazer and its Watson engine?

In the short-run, it’s very possible that a vertical approach like WayBlazer might produce superior results. My bet, though, is that competitive advantage in the artificial intelligence market will depend on having a high volume of user interactions. Today’s machine learning approaches to artificial intelligence learn and improve by interacting and getting feedback from people, and that means the technologies with greater scale in user interactions are more likely to learn faster. That’s why, in the longer-run I’m betting that Google, Facebook and the horizontal players will eventually have the edge over IBM.

HELICOPTER CHARTER PRICES NOW REASONABLE FOR MANY TRAVELERS

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So you feel that a private helicopter is exclusively a luxury existing for the really wealthy or celebs? You might want to consider again. Recently, chartered helicopters continue to increase in popularity — not only as a means for specifically displaying success but rather as a somewhat higher-priced convenience to get about crammed metropolitan areas like Chicago. If the uncertainty of ground transport leads to challenges for getting to your desired destination in time, follow these suggestions to plan a chartered helicopter.

Look for a nearby charter helicopter service and discuss a consultation. As easy as it may seem, not each and every helicopter firm features chartered offerings or has time to accommodate your excursion. Ask about costs. Once you look around and discover the best fit, inquire about the amount an outing will set you back. Fees differ between agencies, even if it’s a given that smaller sized groups and faster trips are priced cheaper than longer, larger outings. You can go to My Private Helicopter to get an idea of helicopter charter prices in Chicago, IL and other large metropolitan area.

Helicopter Charter Prices Dropping

Just where do you plan to go? The charter business will need to know the length of the journey you plan on taking. After getting the site picked, determine the location where the pilot intends on landing. This might be at one of the local airports around the city, or may be a field far from telephone wires. Helicopter charter services is usually useful in the corporate community. Businesses will be able to gain through the offerings by employing chartered helicopters in their company.

Countless large corporations do business across the country. Nowadays, where the attitude is time is money, wasting time about the daily schedules of the major airports is often constraining. Using helicopter offerings, business staff may travel on their time. As opposed to dealing with the headaches of chaotic air terminals and traffic, an employee may take a helicopter to a far off business conference.

Almost any company will clearly show a prospect they mean business by offering them a customized helicopter trip. Grant prospects a overall viewpoint of real estate and projects using a charter helicopter company. There is no better technique for a major company to show clientele that they are prosperous and ought to work with them then getting them on a trip in a helicopter.

Custom helicopter charter services allows a firm’s staff depart on their time and get where they’re heading swiftly. Save time and money with chartered helicopters, regardless if it will be for a business excursion, to attract clientele, or to get to corporate occasions at various other points. To be able to schedule a helicopter trip, you merely need to stick to a couple of guidelines. Scheduling isn’t very hard and you only need to know what kind of helicopter ride you need.

It is important to select an area. Will you be scheduling a chartered helicopter to look at the scenery? Exactly what areas will you see? The greatest task concerning picking a helicopter trip is picking out exactly where you wish to tour. Be aware the destination decided on must be a place that’s accessible. If it is just not an easily-accessible destination, be certain to make proper traveling preparations so the day moves as well as possible.

handicapped sports

CAN SPORTS BE MADE MORE INCLUSIVE?

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Sport initiatives are increasingly being viewed and promoted as catalysts to achieving a range of non-sporting objectives variously labelled under sport for social change or development, sport for peacebuilding and reconciliation and sport for education, equality and inclusion.

The UN recognises the vital role sport can play in enhancing personal and societal development and the EU has been at the forefront of promoting the use of sport in combating exclusion, inequalities, racism and xenophobia. As such the role of sport in promoting social inclusion has become a key focus in both research and international policy. However, there are calls for empirical evidence to show how the design and structure of projects and initiatives impact on positive social outcomes and for community level research to develop localised theoretical frameworks to inform initiatives going forwards.

This research aims to contribute empirical evidence to these areas by analysing the implications of the Mixed Ability Model (hereafter MA Model) for inclusive sport through the evaluation of disabled and non-disabled participants’ experiences of Mixed Ability Rugby (hereafter MA Rugby) in the UK and Italy. The MA Model seeks to promote social inclusion through the integration of disabled players into a mainstream social sport setting in their local community, playing alongside non-disabled participants. This research answers calls for better understanding of participant experiences and perspectives of inclusive sport and in particular hearing the voices and viewpoints of people with disabilities.

Participation in sport and physical activities has been reported to have positive impacts in achieving personal and societal benefits, leading to a plethora of policies and initiatives promoting sport. In particular, these are targeted at underrepresented and traditionally marginalised groups. Disabled people fall into this category. In England, only 17% of disabled people aged 16+ participate in sport for 30 minutes a week compared to 36% of non-disabled people and in Italy the gap is even wider, with only 15% of disabled people participating compared to 42% of the non-disabled population.

Article 30 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities encourages and promotes ‘the participation, to the fullest extent possible, of persons with disabilities in mainstream sporting activities at all levels’. However, the disability sports literature highlights a plethora of barriers remaining to this being acheived. Physical barriers are cited as lack of time, finances, carers/assistants, adequate infrastructure, transport and equipment and emotional barriers include feelings of stigmatisation and exposure to prejudice, lack of confidence and self-esteem, challenges around interpersonal communications and lack of awareness of opportunities and realistic role models.

In line with the social model of disability, inclusive sports seek to focus attention on removing these ‘disabling barriers’ through emphasising societal interventions which enable disabled people to fully participate in sport and the broader community. This leads to a more nuanced approach to sport delivery which recognises the

appear important as does the promotion and facilitation of friendship development. In addition, encouraging participants to feel a sense of ownership within a sporting initiative has been found to optimise social inclusion and therefore more inclusive outcomes are likely to arise when the development of the initiative is led by participants rather than being imposed.

The MA Model represents an innovative approach to inclusive sport by integrating disabled players into a mainstream sport setting whether as players or participating in other ways such as organisational or educational roles. The Model grew organically from a lack of provision for disabled participants to play full-contact rugby. Unlike most sports provision for disabled participants, classification and identification systems are not used and MA Rugby is governed by World Rugby Laws without adaptation and with only minor adjustments to take into account individual participant needs.

The MA Model has been developed, and is being championed by, IMAS (International Mixed Ability Sports), a community interest company who support grassroots clubs in establishing MA Rugby teams and who have co-produced educational resources with the participants of MA Rugby. Through this approach, IMAS seek to increase sustainable participation in sport, break down barriers between non-disabled and disabled participants, address social exclusion and generate long-term positive change. However, research into the MA Model is currently lacking, as is broader research into inclusive sports which encourage disabled and non-disabled participants to play collaboratively in a mainstream environment.